Role of the intestinal microbiome and its therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular disorder

The gut microbiome is a heterogeneous population of microbes comprising viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. Such a microbiome is essential for sustaining host equilibrium, and its impact on human health can be altered by a variety of factors such as external variables, social behavior, age, nutrition, and genetics. Gut microbes’ imbalances are related to a variety of chronic diseases including cancer, obesity, and digestive disorders.


Globally, recent findings show that intestinal microbes have a significant role in the formation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is still the primary cause of fatalities. Atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, and some inherited variables are all cardiovascular risk variables.


However, studies found correlations between metabolism, intestinal flora, and dietary intake. Variations in the diversity of gut microbes and changes in their activity are thought to influence CVD etiology.


Furthermore, the gut microbiota acts as an endocrine organ, producing bioactive metabolites such as TMA (trimethylamine)/TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide), SCFA (short-chain fatty acids), and bile acids, which have a substantial impact on host wellness and disease by multiple mechanisms.


The purpose of this overview is to compile current evidence highlighting the intricate links between gut microbiota, metabolites, and the development of CVD. It focuses on how intestinal dysbiosis promotes CVD risk factors such as heart failure, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. This review explores the normal physiology of intestinal microbes and potential techniques for targeting gut bacteria for CVD treatment using various microbial metabolites.


It also examines the significance of gut bacteria in disease treatment, including supplements, prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotic therapies, and fecal transplantation, which is an innovative approach to the management of CVD. As a result, gut bacteria and metabolic pathways become increasingly attractive as potential targets for CVD intervention.

Published: 26 Jan 2024
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Frontiers in Immunology; DOI: