Objective: In recent years, a great number of studies have been directed toward the evaluation of gastrointestinal microbiota modulation through the introduction of beneficial microorganisms, also known as probiotics. Many studies have highlighted how this category of bacteria is very important for the good development, functioning, and maintenance of our immune system. There is a delicate balance between the immune system, located under the gut epithelial barrier, and the microbiota, but many factors can induce a disequilibrium that leads to an inflammatory state and dysbiosis. The aim of this work is to verify the anti-inflammatory effects of a probiotic formulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Bifidobacterium longum (Serobioma).
Methods: To mimic the natural host compartmentalization between probiotics and immune cells through the intestinal epithelial barrier in vitro, the transwell model was used. We focused on a particular subset of immune cells that play a key role in the mucosal immune system. The immunomodulatory effects of probiotic formulation were investigated in the human macrophage cell line THP1 and macrophages derived from ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Results: Probiotic formulation induced a significant increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and was able to decrease the secretion of the major proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 by 70% and 80%, respectively. Finally, for the first time, the ability of probiotic formulation to favor the macrophage M2 phenotype has been identified.
Conclusion: The transwell model is an intriguing toll approach to studying the human epithelial barrier.
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